Friday, March 20, 2020
Peace Corps essays Change, whether it is for better or worse, is inevitable in our society. We as individuals have the ability to bring about change in society and the world. Throughout history, cultures and societies have benefited through the sharing of skills. A modern day example of this is the Peace Corps. The Peace Corps positively affects the United States politically, the citizens of the communities in which volunteers serve economically and socially, and the volunteers themselves personally. Even before the creation of the Peace Corps, many influential Senators and Representatives had the idea of an Army of Peace. American Philosopher, William James first suggested the idea of an army to work for peace in 1904. That idea was not put into consideration by the United States government, but it eventually led up to the creation of international work camps. When World War II ended in 1945, numerous private groups set up work camps around the world to improve conditions in those areas. Other private groups sent young, skilled Americans to share their skills in other countries. This example led Senator Richard L. Neuberger of Oregon and Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin to propose the idea of a youth corps program in January of 1960. Their program would send young Americans trained in a skill to a developing county to share their talents. The plan for the program never made it through Congress, but later in 1960, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota asked Con gress to create a peace corps. Instead of sending only young Americans, his plan called for people of any age to share their skills in a foreign country. Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy used the idea of a peace corps in his campaign for presidency in 1960 (Peace Corps, World Book 2). The idea of a peace corps was popular with college students. This is seen in the book Come As You Are: The Peace Corps Story. In his speech to a large crowd a...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
How to Master the German Articles-Part I The German articles are honestly spoken a pain in the neck as they do not make any sense nor do they follow any logic. Unfortunately they are important for anyone who aims at speaking correct German. But thereÃ¢â¬â¢s hope. There are two simple ways to deal with them almost effortlessly. This article will show you a quick and dirty way to recognize the gender of a German noun even if you dont understand its meaning yet. The second technique you will find in this article. The first is base upon the fact that there are indeed a few signals that give away a nouns gender. The endings -ig or -ling e.g. are always masculine, and so are -or, -ismus and the majority of nouns ending in -er. The problem is that those five endings are as abstract and meaningless as the articles themselves and therefore are still pretty difficult to remember and to apply.Ã The best way to deal with these article-signals is to organise them in the following way: der ig-ling-or-ismuser which we would read like a single word: der iglingorismuserÃ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s still abstract but now we only have to deal with one abstract information -iglingorismuser- instead of five (-ig, -ling, -or, -ismus, -er). Our new word-creation also has a melody that makes it easier to remember.Ã Try it. Read it out loud a few times and try to recite it simply from your memory until you know it by heart. It took me a day of occasional recital and I still am able to recall it in an instant.Ã Of course there are also such signals for neuter and feminine nouns. Combined to mnemonic words they look like this: das Tum-chen-ma-ment-um-leinnis die Heit-ung-keit-ei-schaft-ion-ie-tt-ikure Practice them until you can recite them in a second or less so that you can focus on meaning instead on grammar when speaking. A friend of mine has written a little song to help learners like you to master them quickly. Make sure to check it out. There are also many good tips on how to learn abstract information in general in this lovely article. You might have noted the plus sign () in front of some endings above. That simply means that those endings are not 100% reliable regarding their signal. But they are mostly indicating the gender above. You can find some exceptions here. The beauty of this technique lies in its efficiency as you will be able to identify a nounÃ¢â¬â¢s gender even without knowing what that noun means. The word Ã¢â¬Å¾EinberufungÃ¢â¬Å" e.g. will most certainly be unknown to most of you but you will recognize its ending -ung easily and therefore know that it is of feminine gender. By the way it means Ã¢â¬Å¾draftÃ¢â¬Å" into military service. Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you test your current knowledge of the articles with the following exercise before you practice the three lovely mnemonic words above for some time and then come back to this article and test your new skill? Like this you will have a before-after comparison and therefore a visual feedback for what you have learned with help of this article.Ã Test of your current article-recognition skills. Cover the text above so that you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be tempted to peek. What gender do the following German nouns have? You can write either der, das, die or simply (m)asculine, (n)euter or (f)eminine. Ã Test your knowledge of the German Articles Schmetterling (butterfly)Abteilung (department)Nation (nation)Autor (author)Psychologie (psychology)Wachstum (growth)Mdchen (girl)Eimer (bucket)Nase (nose)Polizei (police)Mongolei (Mongolia)KÃ ¶ter (scoundrel)Kommunismus (communism)Frulein (Miss)Natur (nature)Fabrik (plant)Oktober (October)FrÃ ¼hling (spring)BÃ ¼rschchen (stripling/laddie)Gesellschaft (society)Struktur (structure)Quentchen (grain)Management (management)Logik (logic)Museum (museum)Information (information)Minute (minute)KÃ ¶rper (body)Wohnung (flat)Feigling (coward)September (September)Meister (master)Ewigkeit (eternity) The answers you will find on the next page, so maybe copy these words into a word document or on a piece of paper to be able to easily correct your answers. Feel free to let me know your before/after results and what you think of this technique.Ã One last note: This technique does not cover all possible article signals but the most common ones. And it also does not help you with all those nouns that simply do not have any signal-ending yet there is also a few categories that usually stick to one gender, like e.g. alcoholic beverages that are mostly masculine (e.g. der Wein) or motorcycle bands that are exclusively feminine (e.g. die Harley Davidson) and the second technique is coming soon. Stay tuned and thanks for reading. Here now the answers to the exercise on the last page: der Schmetterling (butterfly)die Abteilung (department)die Nation (nation)der Autor (author)die Psychologie (psychology)das Wachstum (growth)das Mdchen (girl)der Eimer (bucket)die Nase (nose)die Polizei (police)die Mongolei (Mongolia)der KÃ ¶ter (scoundrel)der Kommunismus (communism)das Frulein (Miss)die Natur (nature)die Fabrik (plant)der Oktober (October)der FrÃ ¼hling (spring)das BÃ ¼rschchen (stripling/laddie)die Gesellschaft (society)die Struktur (structure)das Quentchen (grain)das Management (management)die Logik (logic)das Museum (museum)die Information (information)die Minute (minute)der KÃ ¶rper (body)die Wohnung (flat)der Feigling (coward)September (September)der Meister (master)die Ewigkeit (eternity) Ã How many have you had correct? Before: ______ After: Ã ______ Ã 00-11 points: Ã Ã You could have gotten that much simply by guessing 12-22 points: Ã Ã Not bad, but maybe you just have been lucky.Ã 23-33 points: Ã Ã Gute Arbeit. You are on your way to becoming an German Artikelmeister.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Environmental Challenges, Solutions and Recommendations - Research Paper Example Major Issues and Challenges in the Environmental Portfolio All around Australia, different states are experiencing problems regarding the management of the environment. This section will analyze the environmental challenges and their impact on the country. Water pollution The most common environmental problem in Australia is the issue of water pollution (Reisser & Pattiaratchi, 2013). There is widespread pollution in rivers, water bodies and in the oceanic waters surrounding the country. Water pollution is especially widespread in cities neighbouring the sea. The Australian coastline is polluted by wastes such as plastics and wastes from industries. It is estimated that every square kilometer of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s sea area contains over 4,000 pieces of plastic waste (Reisser & Pattiaratchi, 2013). The plastics drain into the sea from inland waters that flow through residential areas and flow into the sea. Industries have contributed to water pollution by dumping industrial waste into the sea or rivers. Stormwater contributes to pollution by draining harmful substances from the land and into the sea (OEH, 2015). Spillages from sewage drainage systems and waste treatment plants end up in water bodies resulting in further pollution. Oil spillages may b e infrequent but they still contribute to water pollution. Water pollution has led to a deterioration of the marine ecosystem leading to the reduction in the population of aquatic organisms (Forstner & Wittmann, 2012, pp.91-93).
Monday, February 3, 2020
To what extent is jihad an important concept to understand Frankish-Muslim relations - Essay Example f this paper that the influence of the confrontationist ideology of Ã¢â¬Å"jihadÃ¢â¬ on the organization of relationships between Franks and Muslims is nearly negligible, and not so important in understanding the Frankish-Muslim relations in the period between the first Crusades through to the thirteenth century. The concept of jihad in Arabic roughly translates to mean Ã¢â¬Å"struggleÃ¢â¬ and it denotes the central obligation of all believers of the Islam religion to their faithÃ¢â¬âthus, it refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"struggleÃ¢â¬ against all those who are opposed to Allah, and the Islamic faith in general, within the context of classical theory of Islam. The word jihad has acquired two commonly acknowledged interpretations, which are Ã¢â¬Å"an inner spiritual struggleÃ¢â¬ and an Ã¢â¬Å"outer physical struggleÃ¢â¬ ; whereas conventional attitudes acknowledge the inner struggle by believers to fulfil their religious obligations as the true essence of the term, Islamic scholars stress that the term inevitably connotes an armed struggle against persecution as well as oppression. In this respect, proponents of the violent form of jihad have largely contributed to the pervasive interpretation of the term to mean Ã¢â¬Å"holly warÃ¢â¬ that is deeply inculcated all over the Islamic world ; today, the term has taken on a military meaning in nearly all contexts, and is a fairly stable idea in Islamic law (Parviz, and Ridwan 2001, p.23). Earlier historical publications have explored the Frankish-Muslim relations to great extents in which they have pervasively enforced the perspective that the Frankish states remained outposts of the Christian world and infidels in the dominant Islamic Middle East. Consequently, the bleak image of a Christian-Islam confrontation in the Frankish-Muslim relations has often emerged and taken root in a vast proportion of western sources thereby greatly influencing western thought and discourse. The true nature of the Frankish-Muslim relations remains to be a hotly contested, often
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Anthropogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Source Apportionment of Anthropogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Molecular and Isotopic Characterization A dissertation submitted as part of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important, ubiquitous environmental pollutants known for their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. They are released into the atmosphere, soil (which bears about 90% of the environmental PAH burden in the UK) and water by natural and anthropogenic processes. Today, anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuel is, by far, the most important source of PAH input into the environment. The importance of PAHs as environmental pollutants with a multiplicity of sources has resulted in considerable interest in source apportionment techniques. This study therefore investigated the PAH profiles in road dust samples around a high temperature carbonization plant (Barnsley, South Yorkshire) and used the combination of molecular methods and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (d13C GC-IRMS) to identify their origin. Quantification of the sixteen U.S EPA priority PAHs extracted from the dust samples ranged from 2.65 to 90.82g/g. The PAH profiles were dominated by phenanthrene for 2-3 ring PAHs and by fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b+k)flouranthene for PAHs with ring size Ã¢â° ¥ 4. The fluoranthene to pyrene (Fl/(FL+P)) )) concentration ratio ranged from 0.51 to 0.55, while the indenol(1,2,3-cd)pyrene to benzo(ghi)perylene (IcdP/(IcdP+ BghiPer)) ratio ranged from 0.37 to 0.55; suggesting contributions from diesel combustion, most likely from heavy duty trucks. The ability of compound-specific stable isotope measurement, using d13C GC-IRMS, to source apportion environmental PAHs where significant input from coal is expected has been demonstrated. The PAH d13C isotope ratio values ranged from -25.5 to -29.7%o. Overall, the d13C isotope ratio, in conjunction with PAH molecular distribution/ratio, strongly suggest that PAHs in the study area have inputs from both high temperature coal carbonisation and transport fuels (mainly diesel combustion). Chapter One 1.0 Introduction Industrialization, centered on energy use, has been the driving force for many of the greatest advances in the 20th century and is central to our way of life in the modern world today. Energy improvements and the discovery of fossil fuel (coal and petroleum) have hastened industrialization and breakthroughs in areas such as travel, communication, agriculture and healthcare, in many parts of the world. Despite these achievements, industrialization has brought along with it global problems of environmental pollution and challenges. These include exploitation of natural resources, oil spillages, global warming due to rising emissions of carbon dioxide and other green house gases, disposal of wastes (industrial and domestic) and inorganic and organic emissions which ultimately affect air, water and land quality. The release of organics/organic effluents such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mainly from the use of fossil fuels; into the environment have particularly gained attention in recent times due to their toxicity and persistence. 1.1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are of great public concern due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and/or mutagenicity (Fabbri et al., 2003; Sharma et al., 2007). They are continuously introduced into the environment by both natural processes, such as volcanic eruptions and forest fires; and anthropogenic sources which include various industrial processes such as coke production in the iron and steel industry, catalytic cracking in the petroleum industry, coal gasification, heating and power generation, open burning of vegetation and internal combustion engines used for various means of transportation (Suess, 1976; Morasch et al., 2007). Immense PAHs contaminations of the environment typically originate from anthropogenic sources. A natural balance existing between the production and natural degradation of PAH historically kept the background concentration of PAH in the environment low and fixed (Smith and Harrison, 1996). The ever-increasing industrial development and use of fossil fuels in many parts of the world released PAHs into the environment resulting in their universal occurrence in air, water, soil and sediments. This increase in the production rate of anthropogenic PAHs has disrupted the natural balance of PAHs in the environment, while their rate of decomposition remains more or less constant (Suess, 1976; Fetzer, 1988). PAHs are found in great abundance in fossil fuel materials such as shale oil, coal liquids, petroleum, asphalt and many other hydrocarbon based materials (Fetzer, 1988). Incomplete combustion of these fossil fuel materials produces fly ash, chimney soot and engine-derived air particulates which have higher levels of PAHs than the original materials (Chadwick et al., 1987; Fetzer, 1988). Generally, PAHs give rise to significant impact to the areas close to the nearest point sources (Ohkuchi et al., 1999). There are very high concentrations of atmospheric PAH in the urban environment which is accounted for by the various industrial processes earlier identified, increasing vehicular traffic and the scarce dispersion of the atmospheric pollutants. These PAHs are emitted to the atmosphere either in the gaseous phase or on very small particles, 70-90% of which are in the respirable range (et al., 1987). The risk associated with the human exposure to atmospheric PAH is therefore highest in the cities because of these factors and the density of population (Sharma et al., 2007). In view of the carcinogenic potential of many PAH compounds, their contribution to the mutagenic activity of ambient aerosols and range of sources of emission, their concentration in the environment is considered alarming and efforts should be made to reduce or even eliminate them wherever possible. To achieve this, a better understanding of their fate and associative transformation pathways in the environment is necessary and this has resulted in considerable interest in PAHs source apportionment. 1.2 Source Apportionment Most organic pollutants can be released into the environment from various sources. Hydrocarbon pollutants are particularly widespread in the environment due to the multiplicity of their sources such as synthesis by living organisms (biogenic origin), degradation of organic matter (diagenic origin), incomplete combustion of organic matter and natural and anthropogenic fossil fuel combustibles (petrogenic origin) (Mazeas et al., 2002). Due to the multiplicity of the sources of organic pollutants, source apportionment techniques are invaluable in the determination of the contributions of various pollution sources of a pollutant in the environment. Source apportionment generally refers to the quantitative assignment of a combination of distinct sources of a particular group of compounds put into a system (OMalley et al., 1994). Differences in emission profile, among emission sources, have been sufficiently used to develop fingerprints that can be identified and quantified at a particular site (Dallarosa et al., 2005). As mentioned earlier, most of the environmental PAHs have anthropogenic origins. Contributions from coal combustion and use of petroleum in internal combustion engines for transportation have increased over the years and have generated a lot of concern. It is therefore important to be able to distinguish different sources that contribute to PAH pollution of a particular environment using reliable source apportionment techniques. This project work is therefore aimed at contributing to the knowledge of reliable, unambiguous novel PAH source apportionment techniques by: (i) Identifying and quantifying contemporary PAHs fluxes in the environment around a coking works using molecular methods (ii) Demonstrating the ability of compound specific stable isotope measurement to source apportion environmental PAHs where significant input from coal is expected Chapter Two 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 General overview of the properties of PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are a class of complex organic chemicals made up of carbon and hydrogen with a fused ring structure containing at least 2 benzene rings (Ravindra et al., 2008). They may also contain additional fused rings that are not six-sided (Figure 1). Pyrosynthesis and pyrolysis are two main mechanisms that can explain the formation of PAH from saturated hydrocarbons under oxygen-deficient conditions. Low molecular weight hydrocarbons like ethane form PAHs by pyrosynthesis (Figure 2). At a temperature greater than 5000C, carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bond are broken to form free radicals which combine to form acetylene. Acetylene condenses further to form aromatic ring structures which are resistant to degradation (Figure 2). The ease with which hydrocarbons may form PAH structure varies in the order aromatics > cycloolefins > olefins > Paraffins (Ravindra et al., 2008). The higher molecular weight alkanes in fuel form PAH by pyrolysis: the cracking of organic compounds. The discovery of the fluorescence of a number of known carcinogenic tars and mineral oils in 1930 led to the investigation of the carcinogenic properties of PAHs. This spanned from the discovery that benz(a)anthracene and other compounds in its group possessed a similar fluorescence (Chadwick et al., 1987). Initial investigation for PAH carcinogenicity using dibenz(a,h)anthracene later resulted in the isolation of a powerful carcinogenic substance from coal tar: benzo(a)pyrene (Chadwick et al., 1987). Since the discovery of benzo(a)pyrene, various works have been done to identify other carcinogenic PAHs. Sixteen (16) parental PAHs have been designated by the US environmental protection agency (US EPA) as priority pollutants and most of the studies have focused on these (Figure 1 and Table 1). Seven (7) of these (Table 2) have been identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as animal carcinogens and have been studied by the EPA as potential human carcinogens (EPA report, 1998). PAH can undergo metabolic transformation into mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic agents in aquatic and terrestrial organisms. These metabolites, such as dihydrodiol epoxides, bind to, and disrupt, DNA and RNA, which is the basis for tumor formation (Wild and Jones, 1995). Although PAHs are renowned for their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, not all of them are environmentally or biologically significant. Studies have been carried out on monitoring the levels of some of the important PAH in various parts of the world and the results of a number of these are summarized in Table 2. The carcinogenicity and/or mutagenicity of PAH, which require metabolic conversion and activation, is structurally dependent: while certain isomers can be very active, other similar ones are not (Fetzer, 1988). An example, as shown by Fetzer (1988), is found in the five PAHs with molecular weight of 288 and containing 4 rings. Chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[c]phenanthrene are mutagenic but the remaining two, napthacene and triphenylene are not. As molecular weight increases, the carcinogenic level of PAHs also increases and acute toxicity decreases (Ravindra et al., 2008). The p electron fused benzene rings in PAHs account for most of their physical properties and chemical stability (Lee et al., 1981). The 2-ring and 3-ring PAHs compounds, which are more volatile and water soluble, but less lipophilic than their higher molecular weight relatives, generally exist primarily in the gas phase in the atmosphere and will tend to be deposited to the surfaces via dry gaseous and/or wet deposition (Ravindra et al., 2008). On the other hand, the less volatile 5-6 ring PAHs tend to be deposited on surfaces bound to particles in wet and dry deposition; while compounds of intermediate vapor pressure will have a temperature-dependent gas/particle partitioning of PAHs leading to both wet and dry deposition in gaseous and particle-bound form (Mannino and Orecchio, 2008). PAHs have a tendency to sorb on hydrophobic surfaces and this tendency increases with the number of aromatic rings (Morasch et al., 2007). Thus, PAHs are primarily found/present in the environment in soils and sediments, rather than water and air. Their high hydrophobic tendency and high lipophilic properties make them easily bio-accumulated to such an extent that can threaten the safety of food chains for both man and animals (Sun et al., 2003). Compounds Chemical formula Molecular weight Melting point, oC Boiling point,oC Particle/gas phase distribution Napthalene C10H8 128.19 80.5 218 Acenaphthylene C12H8 152.21 Gas phase Acenaphthene C12H10 154.21 96.2 279 Gas phase Fluorene C13H10 166.22 116 -117 295 Gas phase Phenanthrene C14H10 178.24 100 101 340 Particle phase Anthracene C14H10 178.24 216.5 217.2 339.9 Particle phase Fluoranthene C16H10 202.26 110.6 111.0 393 Particle phase Pyrene C16H10 202.66 152.2 152.9 360 Particle phase Benz(a)anthracene* C18H12 228.30 159.5 160.5 435 Particle phase Chrysene* C18H12 228.30 250 254 448 Particle phase Benzo(b)fluoranthene* C20H12 252.32 Particle phase Benzo(K)fluoranthene* C20H12 252.32 215.5 216 Particle phase Benzo(a)pyrene* C20H12 252.32 176.5 -177.5 311 Particle phase Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene* C20H12 276.34 Particle phase Dibenz(a,h)anthracene* C22H14 278.34 205 Particle phase Benzo(ghi)perylene C20H12 276.34 273 Particle phase *PAHs identified animal carcinogens and as potential human carcinogens Table 1: Physical properties of 16 priority PAHs on US EPA listing (Adapted from EPA REPORT, 1998, Ravindra et al., 2008) S/N Total PAHs Mean (ngm-3) Cities 1 Ã ¥ 15 PAHs 56 Columbia (USA) 2 Ã ¥ 15 PAHs 412 Austria 3 B (a) P 4.99-9.56a Delhi 4 Ã ¥ 12 PAHs 93 Denver (USA) 5 Ã ¥ 8 PAHs 150-1800a Delhi 6 Ã ¥ 15 PAHs 166 London 7 Ã ¥ 15 PAHs 59 Cardiff 8 Ã ¥ 11 PAHs 90-195 (I)a, 20-70 (R)a Ahmedabad 9 Ã ¥ 12 PAHs 22.9-190.96a Kolkata 10 Ã ¥ 12 PAHs 20-95a, 125-190a Mumbai, Nagpur 11 Ã ¥ 13 PAHs 90.37 57.04 Coimbatore 12 Ã ¥ 11 PAHs 310 (60-910)a Mexico city 13 Ã ¥ 15 PAHs 8.94-62.5a Camo Grande city 14 Ã ¥ 16 PAHs 13-1865a Chicago I= industrial site, R = residential site, a Range Table 2: A summary of mean concentrations (ng/m3) of total PAHs in various cities of the world (Sharma et al., 2007) 2.2 Anthropogenic sources of PAHS The high concentration of PAHs in the environment, as shown in Table 2, suggests the extent of anthropogenic contribution (Sharma et al., 2007). It is, however, difficult to estimate the amount of anthropogenic PAHS on the yearly input of the various sources on a global basis. An approximate quantification has been made, based on the annual consumption of fossil fuel, that while the global annual release of PAHs to the atmosphere is of an order of 105 tonnes, including 103 tonnes of benzo(a)pyrene; the annual input of crude and processed oil containing 1-3% PAHs to the oceans of the world is 1.1106 tonnes (Ivwurie, 2004). The main anthropogenic sources of carcinogenic PAHs are emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial and power plants, automobile emissions, biomass burning, agricultural burning and natural gas utilization. Fossil fuel utilization is the major cause of anthropogenic PAH occurrence in the environment. Hence, emphasis is placed on these sources below. 2.2.1 PAHs from Coal Combustion and Conversion Processes Coal, an organic rock formed from the accumulation and burial of partially decomposed vegetation in previous geologic ages through a series of physical, biological and biochemical changes; is a major fossil fuel for heating and power generation. The predominant organic components in coal have resulted from the formation and condensation of polynuclear carboxylic and heterocyclic ring compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur (United Nations, 1973). Due to its chemical composition (heterogeneous macro-molecular matrix, including hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic moieties) various coal conversion and utilizations are significant contributors of PAHs to the environment. Coal combustion emissions 47 PAH compounds resulting from coal combustion residing in fly ash, grate ash or the stack emissions were identified in the work of Junk and Ford (1980, cited in Chadwick et al., 1987). However, these PAH emissions are a function of the efficiency of the coal combustion plant. On the whole, large, efficient coal-burning, electricity-generating plants, with high combustion temperatures, emit relatively low total amounts of PAH and contribute very little to PAH emissions when operated properly (Chadwick et al., 1987). PAH emission factors for coal-fired plants were put at 32ugkg-1 and 41ugkg-1 coal by Ramdahl et al. (1983) and Masclet et al. (1987) respectively. 70% of the total PAH emission flux from power plants is made up of 3-4 ring PAHs and their alkylated counterparts (Wild and Jones, 1995). 5-6 ring PAHs and their heteroatom-containing derivatives are emitted from coke ovens during coal carbonisation (Kirton et al., 1991) Coal carbonization emissions Coal carbonization, the pyrolytic decomposition of coal in the absence of oxygen, can be classified according to the temperature to which the coal is heated, as shown in Table 3. This process yields char or coke, tar and oven or coal gas as the major products. Coke is by far the most important product in terms of yield and revenue. However, leakages from coke ovens are sources of release of high levels of PAHs and other organics to the environment. Emissions from coke ovens range from volatile monoaromatics (alkyl benzenes) to 5-6 ring PAHs together with their substituted heteroatom derivatives such as O-PAHs, NPAHs and S-PAHs (Lao et al., 1975; Kirton et al., 1991). Anderson et al. (1983) determine
Friday, January 17, 2020
The film industries of the world are developing day by day. Today there are so many films being produced that you can barely keep count. Some of them are for the benefit of the community but most of the films have a bad influence on the young people as well as on the community. These films are responsible for increase in violence, crime, illegitimacy in the society. And I completely agree with the statement that many films are a bad influence on young people because of the following reasons. It has been noticed that boys and girls are crazy of watching movies. And they spent averagely three to four hours in watching movies daily. This fast growing bad habit is expensive because of increasing electricity bill and the waste of precious time which can certainly be devoted to healthier, less wasteful and more gainful pursuits. The extreme setting in front of TV is harmful for education and health also. The studies are affected because youth like to watch television when parents are not there in home, and having no self-discipline. Many teens have shortsighted because of this. And it caused the problem like fat. Staying at home will let you become lazier. Our body needs to do sports, exercise etc The youth also try the actions done by heroes in the films. In the Indian films there is extreme level of violence, crime and other deviations from normal human behavior. The re-enactment shows shown on different channels of about robbery, murder etc, and are extremely dangerous for the country in future because youth learn about the new methods of criminal activities. Education and other experts have repeatedly found that the main source of eve teasing and assaults on girls in our towns and cities, in the market place and elsewhere, is the cinema. Young people see on the screen a hero running after a heroine, approaching and tempting her in subtle ways. Such talk and gestures naturally catch the attention of the immature cinema fans and affect their thinking and conduct. Thus, the social fabric and the morals of the young people are adversely affected. Another notable aspect of the situation is that whenever some enterprising producer presents a simple, true-to-life story, based on the works of famous short story or fiction writers as Prem Chand or Sarat Chandra, such films, and also art films free of glamour, seldom prove successful and prove to be flops at the box office. The modern audiences want songs and dances, spectacle and gorgeous costumes, love scenes and fights. What sort of citizens can the country hope to produce when the films the young see are totally misleading, lack aesthetical values. However, there are some positive effects of the films like movie Ã¢â¬Å"Tara Zameen ParÃ¢â¬ in which a child which is been weak in one subject can be good in other subject and the strictness of the parents on the weak subject can make the child mentally disabled. In the last movies and films are bad for the youth because positive effects are lesser than negative effects.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Alexander Protivnak Essay #2 PS 1511 All through the Cold War the United States attempted to contain or squash developments that it saw as dangers to American financial or security objectives, in Europe, in Asia, in different parts of the alleged Third World, and at home. Communists, patriots, individual voyagers, neutralists, and activists for popular government and human rights, at different times, felt American rage in the half-century after 1945. In no spot, be that as it may, did American exertions to attest its hobbies and impede the will of the local populace happen as seriously or shockingly as in Vietnam. Despite the fact that a little, immature nation which has been subjected to violence and resistance through the years, not toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many considered these as steps back rather than moving forward. This is an impending doom which revealed itself early on. Both Robert Buzzano and Randall Woods present excellent interpretations of American foreign policy in Vietnam. What we need to look at closely is the goals that are set by the U.S., as well as their expected goals. When starting our comparison we are forced to realize that John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson had two very different approaches to Vietnam. Many attribute LBJ as the reason we even went into Vietnam. However what remains is another instance of America trying to protect the world from communism. Woods tells us that, Ã¢â¬Å"Johnson was an unbelievably intelligent person. His capacity to absorb information and analyze it was amazing. He was a very earthy and profane man, but he also was very much a liberal Christian.Ã¢â¬ This becomes a more popular argument however that Wood expands on. At the beginning of WoodÃ¢â¬â¢s article, he states that LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s Christian ideology influenced how he approached the conflict in South Vietnam. Since the United States stands for democracy, it was imperative that LBJ follow JFKÃ¢â¬â¢s lead of protecting the noncommunist Vietnamese. On the off chance that LBJ didn t fight a